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Sources and Rights

NB: This page indicates the sources of the basic material found on the PACE site. See the PACE Partners link for funding support and academic collaborations. Open Sky Solutions of Hamilton, Canada, has created this website, its data management system, and its design.

The Greek texts of Polybius and Josephus are used in collaboration with the Perseus Project at Tufts University, directed by Gregory Crane. Contact Perseus here.

The Histories of Polybius (1889) by Evelyn Shirley Shuckburgh (d. 1906) is a work in the public domain. We have used the digitized texts from Perseus, directed by Gregory Crane, and from In Parentheses, directed by Ross Arthur.

The Loeb Classical Library translation of Polybius (1922-27), by William Roger Paton (d. 1921), is in the public domain. Bill Thayer digitized the text and we are grateful for his kind cooperation with PACE.

A Historical Commentary on Polybius, by Frank William Walbank (3 vols., Clarendon Press, 1957-1979), is used with the permission of the author and under paid licence from Oxford University Press. It may not be copied or reused. It was digitized by SoftpageIndia Data Conversion, Pvt. Ltd., New Bombay, India.

The Brill Josephus Project ( Flavius Josephus: Translation and Commentary, 12 vols., ed. Steve Mason; Brill 2000-), which provides commentary and new translation to Josephus as well as archaeological surveys, is used under paid licence from Brill Academic Publishers. It may not be copied or reused. Purchase the print volumes.

All animated fly-over “movies” and high-resolution, vertical aerial images of sites in Israel are used under paid licence from Røhr Productions of Nicosia, Cyprus. They may not be copied or reused. Enquiries: Dr. Richard Cleave of Røhr Productions.

Images with the ‘TB’ tag are supplied under paid licence by Todd Bolen of They may not be copied or reused.

The PACE Bibliography module builds upon the core Josephus-bibliographie developed at the Institutum Judaicum Delitzschianum, under the direction of Prof. Dr. Folker Siegert, at the University of Münster, Germany. We thank the IJD for their kind collaboration.

The core of the PACE History of Reception module has been created by Carol Anne Robinson with the assistance of several reference works. Although we have not borrowed the substance of these works or quoted them, and we have made occasional corrections, we wish to acknowledge the main sources of inspiration. Chief among these is Heinz Schreckenberg, Rezeptionsgeschichtliche und textkritische Untersuchungen zu Flavius Josephus (Brill, 1977). Also helpful were Louis H. Feldman and G. Hata, Josephus, Judaism, and Christianity (Detroit: Wayne State, 1987), and Alice Whealey, Josephus on Jesus: the testimonium flavianum controversy from late antiquity to modern times (New York: Peter Lang, 2003).

The full-text dissertations by Profs. Tessa Rajak (University of Reading, U.K.), Honora Howell Chapman (California State University at Fresno), and Jonathan Roth (San José State University) have been contributed by the authors. Please contact them individually with any enquiries.

Henry St. John Thackeray, Josephus: the Man and the Historian (1926), is used by kind permission of the Jewish Institute of Religion at Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati, OH.

George Foot Moore, “Fate and Free Will in the Jewish Philosophies According to Josephus,” HTR 22 (1929), is used with the kind permission of the Harvard Theological Review and may not be copied. Enquiries here.

The German text of Heinrich Luther, Josephus und Justus (1910), is in the public domain. It was digitized by Martin Fischer, corrected by Caroline Disler. English translation by Fischer and Steve Mason, corrected by Disler in light of revised German.

The German text of Richard Laqueur, Der jüdische Historiker Flavius Josephus (1920), is in the public domain. It was digitized by Zoe Nöstitz von Tait and Martin Fischer, corrected by Caroline Disler. The English translation is by Caroline Disler.

The German text of Hans Drexler, “Untersuchungen zu Josephus und zur Geschichte des jüdischen Aufstandes,” Klio 19 (1925), was digitized by Martin Fischer. It was translated by Fischer and Steve Mason.

The two articles by R. B. Motzo were digitized and translated from the Italian by Tommaso Leoni. He also translated E. Gabba's article from the Italian, in each case securing the appropriate permission for dissemination in this form.