664 Population figures in ancient texts are regularly inflated; Josephus reckons the population of Jerusalem, swollen by pilgrims, at the outbreak of hostilities as 2,700,000 ( War 6.423-27). Modern figures are calculated by multiplying the area of the city by plausible population density. Both contain elements of guesswork, but Bar-Kochva 1996a: 112-13 estimates the Hasmonean city contained ca. 40,000 inhabitants, and at the time of the Revolt ca. 100,000. For Ps.-Hecataeus, the size of the population was a sign of its prosperity (1.194).