662 Ps.-Hecataeus makes
Jerusalem the focal point (cf. Hecataeus
apud Diodorus 40.3.3) and Josephus does not demur, though in his day and with a different definition of “city” he would have put it otherwise (e.g., on
Life 188, 204). The reference to “many fortresses” (or “strongholds,”
ἀχυρώματα) probably fits the post-Maccabean era only (Bar-Kochva 1996a:105-7; 1 Macc 4.61; 9.50-53). The fortification of the city (cf. 1.209) is a matter of national and military pride.