642 Taking this as derived from Josephus’ source, scholars have expended much effort in tracing historical evidence regarding this claim, thus affirming, or denying, its Hecataean authorship (Bar-Kochva 1996a: 91-97). Our poor knowledge of the Persian period impedes this inquiry, and Josephus’ stories elsewhere ( Ant. 11.184-301; 12.45) are of limited help. The comment looks like an exaggeration by Josephus himself based on the reference to satraps in 1.193. In this treatise “Persians” are portrayed negatively (cf. 2.269-70), so frequent persecution from that source is not a matter of shame.