45 Who were Josephus’ accusers? And to what extent is the Life, including this opening genealogy, a response to their misrepresentations? Josephus often complains about opponents who cause him difficulty after the war—in general ( Life 428) and sometimes mentioning specific cases ( War 7.447-53; Life 424-25). He makes oblique reference to charges made against him ( War 3.354, 439), some of which were perhaps current among Roman Judeans. Now, the claim to have many opponents could have a certain cachet for a writer (Martial 4.86.6-7; 7.26.9-10; Statius, Silv. 4.praef.43-5; White 1978:86): since opposition was attributed to envy, the mention of it reinforced one’s own success, and protection from opponents redounded to the glory of one’s patron—as explicitly in Josephus’ case ( Life 424, 428). His laments perhaps exaggerate an undeniable core of animosity that was based on his defection from the war and subsequent success in Rome. Although most scholars have read the entire Life as a response to Iustus of Tiberias (cf. §§ 40-2, 336), the genealogy being either part of that response or merely a stylized preamble (see Introduction), such a reading fails to explain either the specific content of the Life or its generally celebratory tone. It is hard to imagine that this muddled genealogy could have been intended to convince a critically minded adversary. Indeed, we have every reason ( War 1.3; 3.352; 5.419; Ant. 20.266) to think that Josephus was proud enough of his ancestry to recount it without any specific provocation, as the basis of his auctoritas. In that case, this concluding reference to detractors is only an added rhetorical twist, not an indication that self-defense was his chief motivation. Those who doubt Josephus’ claimed ancestry include modern scholars. Cohen (1979:108 n. 33) thinks that his entire appeal to Hasmonean ancestry is “probably bogus” because only in Antiquities and Life does he “suddenly” discover this ancestry. Cf. also Krieger 1994. Yet we have noted the close parallel between War 5.419, which already emphasizes Josephus’ distinguished pedigree, and Life 1. Further, if this heritage was unknown to Josephus in the War, it is hard to understand why he chose to begin his account of the recent Judean revolt with the glorious Hasmonean successes more than 200 years earlier. Admittedly, Josephus fails to mention any personal connection with the Hasmoneans in his brief account of their dynasty in War 1, but he also omits such personal references in the much fuller account of the Antiquities. Even in the longer work, his Hasmonean connection emerges incidentally in his assessment of Herod ( Ant. 16.187). In general, Josephus is circumspect about intruding his personal life into his narrative, outside the autobiography.