33 Gaius Iulius Caesar Germanicus (12-41 CE), nick-named “bootsy”(Caligula) by the soldiers among whom he was raised (Tacitus, Ann. 1.41), was princeps (emperor) from March 18, 37 CE, to January 24, 41. For Gaius, “Caesar” was still a family name inherited from his father Germanicus, who had been adopted by Tiberius, who in turn had been adopted by Augustus; Augustus had been adopted by Iulius Caesar. Moreover, Caligula was a great-grandson of Augustus through a consistent maternal line. This young man’s reign became notorious for its caprice and cruelty. For a more balanced assessment than that given by the hostile ancient sources, see Barrett 1989. That Josephus was born in 37 CE is incidentally confirmed by his remark ( Ant. 20.268) that his 56th year was the 13th year of Domitian’s rule (i.e., 93/94 CE).