25 The terminology indicates the authors whom people “attend to” in 1.2, and whom Josephus will convict of “falsehood,” not least by showing how they contradict themselves. This anticipates 1.219-2.144, where the self-refutation takes the form of contradicting one another (e.g., 1.303, echoing this statement) and individually contradicting themselves (1.226, e.g., of Manetho in 1.230-32, 253-87; of Apion in 2.17, 137-39). The language here (as in 1.219) is ambiguous enough to cover both collective and individual self-incrimination. As Quintilian noted ( Inst. 5.7.29), turning one’s opponents’ arguments against themselves is one of the most effective rhetorical strategies.