23 1.4-5 now indicates the means by which Josephus will achieve the aims of 1.3, though not in the sequence that he will follow; the substance is repeated in 1.58-59, in proper order. The two means mentioned in this section reflect the two challenges of 1.2, in reverse order. The appeal to witnesses ( μάρτυρες, see note to “witnesses” at 1.70; the terminology permeates 1.69-219) is necessary to provide proof against the doubters, who have cited “evidence” ( τεκμήριον, 1.2). The language hints at the development of a legal metaphor as if the Judean nation were here on trial; it thus provides a rhetorical link to the more developed forensic metaphors in later material (2.4, 147).