21 The Hasmonean high priest Simon, brother of his predecessors Ioudas (Judah) and Ionathes, led the nation from about 143/2 to 135/4 BCE. See 1 Macc 13:1-16:17. It was apparently under Simon’s leadership that Judea gained full independence from the Seleucid regime, in 140 BCE (1 Macc 13:41-2). Cf. War 1.50-53; Ant. 13.196-229. Josephus’ introduction of the Hasmonean Simon, who is unnecessary for his genealogy, complicates the logical flow of his account. One must wonder whether this is deliberate. Perhaps he mentions Simon here and again in § 4 so that he may say “high priest” again and in order to reinforce the connection with his own ancestor of the same name.