20 The first purpose relates to the first issue of 1.2, reflected in the repetition of “malice.” “Insult” ( λοιδορέω) is another term strongly associated with the material in 1.219-2.144: it recurs in 1.219-20, 319 and frequently in the Apion segment (see note to “irksome” at 2.4). “Falsehood” ( ψευδολογία) is also a recurrent charge against “Egyptians” (1.252, 267, 293, 318, etc.). The term alone could be free of moral blame (one can tell erroneous tales unwittingly), but the epithet “deliberate” removes that ambiguity (on “lies” in Greek historiography, see note to “matters” at 1.16). The moral tone suggests the translation of ἐλέγξαι as “convict as guilty”; in other contexts Josephus uses this verb to speak of logical “proof” (e.g., 1.253), but since he usually attributes error to malicious motivation, the verb often hovers on the border between “prove,” “convict,” and “expose.”