13 Or “in addition” ( δὲ καί). The double conjunction appears to identify Josephus’ maternal descent and consequent royal connection as something additional to priesthood from his paternal line, such that only the royal side of his ancestry is the new term. Yet there is evidence here and elsewhere that his claim to priesthood itself depends the Hasmonean link, which comes from this “mother” (below). On the one hand, the Bible assumes that priesthood is passed from father to son (Exod 40:15; Num 18:1-20), and so does Josephus elsewhere ( Apion 1.30-6). Both Tobias ( Ant. 12.160) and Herod the Great ( Ant. 14.300) married prominent women from high-priestly families, and yet neither the Tobiads nor the Herods became priests. On the other hand, in Ant. 16.187 Josephus plainly attributes ( διὰ τοῦτο) his priestly status to his connection with the Hasmoneans, and here in the Life that Hasmonean heritage comes from this “mother.” Accordingly, he locates his priesthood in the priestly course of the Hasmoneans (Ioarib). He has given enough material for scholars to conclude that his prized membership in the priesthood derives only from a Hasmonean link through a maternal ancestor (Rajak 1983:17) and is therefore of dubious validity. In that case, one of his ancestors must somehow have assumed priestly status on the basis of Hasmonean connections. According to rabbinic literature ( ‘Abot R. Nathan 35 [p.105]; t. Yoma 4.20; y. Yoma 1.38d; b. Yoma 47a; Pesiq. Rab Kah. 26.10 [p. 398]; cf. Stern 1987:608-9), the priestly family תיחמק came from a maternal ancestor. Alternatively, it would be a remarkable coincidence if his father was heir to paternal priestly line, from the Hasmonean course Ioarib, and his mother was also a descendant of Hasmoneans. This would also create further problems, since his father’s ancestry goes back to a female connection with the Hasmoneans. However his family came into the priesthood, Josephus was evidently a proud, practicing priest (see the note to “priesthood” in § 1). A strikingly similar, rhetorical, blurring of the lines between paternal and maternal priestly descent is found in the letter of the non-priest King Agrippa I to Gaius Caligula, according to Philo ( Legat. 278): “It fell to me to have for grandparents and ancestors kings, most of whom had the title of high priest, who considered their kingship inferior to the priesthood.”